Chapter 1 Introduction
Paying Taxes: A Matter of Money or Mind?
1.1 Visible and invisible taxes
1.2 Visible and invisible benefits
1.3 What is income tax compliance?
1.4 Why should I pay?
1.5 .......... if I don’t get any benefit?
1.6 .......... if what I pay is siphoned off?
1.7 .......... if what I pay is inefficiently applied?
1.8 .......... if it is such a hassle to follow the procedures?
1.9 ...........if it so difficult for me to understand the legal intricacies
1.10 .... if it is so harassing to interact with the tax department?
1.11......if I am unduly audited and investigated upon?
1.12 ....f it is too costly for me to comply?
1.13 .....if the people around me don’t pay?
1.14 .....if my non-payment does not benefit society but only gives me gains?
1.15 Tax evasion? Is it a serious offence?
1.16 Is tax evasion immoral?
1.17 In search of answers
1.18 A Matter of time
1.19 A Matter of money
1.20 A Matter of power
1.21 A Matter of mind: Towards an economic-sociology of taxation
Chapter 2 A Matter of Time? The History of Taxation
2.1 Global perspectives
2.2 Wars and the income tax
2.3 History and the tax revolts
2.4 Taxation and Colonialism
2.5 Indian tax history
2.6 The dominant cultural and religious determinants:
System before the advent of the British
2.7 The exclusive colonial-economic orientation: Taxation during the British period
2.8 The predominant social dimensions: Taxation in post-independent
2.9 Creating history
Chapter 3 A Matter of Money? The Economic of Taxation
3.1 The processual dimensions
3.2 Mobilizing revenue in a dynamic economy
3.3 Emergence of market economy and issues in public
3.4 Taxation as the instrument to resolve the resource crunch
3.5 Deadweight cost of taxation and optimal tax theory
3.6 Inability of Laffer Curve to explain tax behaviour
3.7 Do tax rates have an impact on tax revenue?
3.8 The tax revenue, GDP and the per-capita income
3.9 Tax reforms across the world
3.10 Tax reforms in
3.11 The analytical dimensions
3.12 Taxation and tax compliance: The economist
3.13 Economic-criminological approach
3.14 Economic-behavioural approach
3.15 Deterrence factors
3.16 The tax compliance game: The agency models and
general equilibrium models
3.17 Economic Analysis of taxation: An appraisal
Chapter 4 A Matter of Power? The Politics of Taxation
4.1 Ideologies of taxation
4.2 Politics, equity and taxation
4.3 Contractarian perspectives in taxation
4.4 Performance of the state and the tax compliance
4.5 Nature of political system and country-specific tax
4.6 Political context of tax policy
4.7 Political popularity
4.8 Tax incentives and pressure groups
4.9 Ideological conflict Political ideology and economic
4.10 Vote banks and cash banks
4.11 Institutionalization of political financing
4.12 Anti-tax political parties
-The budget and the tax
4.14 The political context of taxation
Chapter 5 A Matter of Approach? The Sociology of Taxation
5.1 Sociological and social psychological orientations
5.2 Towards an appropriate research focus
5.3 Various research methods
5.4 Disadvantages of using secondary data
5.5 Shortcomings of surveys and questionnaires
5.6 Experimental studies
5.7 Other methods
5.8 Semi-structured interview and case study
5.9 Two empirical studies- Introduction
Chapter 6 A Matter of Mind?
Tax attitudes and tax behavioural perceptions in
a developing country
6.1 Attitudes and its relation to behaviour
6.2 Tax attitudes
6.3 Statement specific responses indicating attitudes
6.4 Perceptions on the role of the state and role performance
of the state
6.5 Perceptions of the rational of taxation and perceived
Fairness of the state
6.6 The changing role of the state in the globalized world
6.7 Attitudes about tax compliance and evasion
6.8 Attitudes and perceptions regarding tax laws and
tax administration fairness
6.9 Perception of reasons for low tax compliance
6.10 Respondents’ ranking for the strategies to increase
6.11 Perception of self tax behaviour
6.12 Past experience with the income tax department
6.13 Taxpayer service
6.14 Insights from the study
6.15 Attitude and perception about the State and
6.16 Attitude and perception about the tax evasion of others
6.17 Attitude towards state and governance and respondents’
Perceived tax behaviour
6.18 Current tax behaviour of the respondents and their
past tax experiences
6.19 Analysis with reference to background variables
6.20 Insights in brief
Chapter 7 A Matter of Stick?
Nabbing the evader: The trajectory of Indian income
7.1 The tax enforcement measures in
7.2 The power of search and seizure
7.3 The search and seizure procedure as per Income tax Act
7.4 The objectives and focus of the study
7.5 The conversational interview
7.6 Duration of search
7.7 Seizure of valuables
7.8 The interrogation, the disclosure and the retraction
7.9 Analysis of the perception of conduct of search
7.10 Behaviour of the search party
7.11 Confidentiality of the search action
7.12 Conduct of the search: What the officials say?
7.13 Perception of post-search experiences
7.14 Appeals against search assessments
7.15 Punitive actions after the search
7.16 Financial strains consequent to the search
7.17 Emotional disturbances consequent to the search
7.18 Health disturbances consequent to the search
7.19 Familial and social support
7.20 Why I was searched? Perceived reasons for search
7.21 Why I was non-compliant? Perceived reasons for income
suppression / tax non-compliance
7.22 Relationships after the search
7.23 Social exposure and activity before and after search
7.24 Religious activities before and after search
7.25 Responses about the departmental proceedings after
7.26 Income Tax Department proximity before and
7.27 Anxiety of tax matters after completion of
7.28 Perceived impact of search on financial well being,
business management and fiscal discipline
7.29 Perceived pre-search tax awareness perception and post-
search tax awareness
Chapter 8 Tax Compliance and Tax Enforcement: Problems
8.1 Procedural compliance and substantive compliance
8.2 The problem of enforcement
8.3 Tax payer –Tax authority game
8.4 Inter group comparison and fairness perception
8.5 The framing and overflowing
8.6 Multiple determinants of tax attitudes and resultant cognitive dissonance
8.7 Endogenous and exogenous stimuli
8.8 The evasion-avoidance ambiguity
8.9 Reciprocity as a factor and perception of corruption
8.10 Nature of state and taxpayer behavioural response
8.11Information on tax compliance in the public domain
Chapter 9 Taxation in a Globalized World: Transitional and
9.1 Is globalization good for the tax systems?
9.2 The tax competition
9.3 Wither welfare state?
9.4 The need to see beyond tax rates
9.5 Relevance for a Global Tax Research and Analysis
9.6 Varying degrees of tax compliance
9.7 Making People Pay
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